Friday, May 22, 2020

Introduction to the Nokia Mobile Phone - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 10 Words: 2888 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Narrative essay Did you like this example? It all began for Nokia when Fredrik Idestam built a paper mill back in 1865. He built another factory near Nokianvirta River, Finland, the place whose first five words gave the company its name Nokia. Between the years of 1865 and 1967 Nokia was recognized as a vital industrial machine; though further expansion needed a merger with a cable company and another merger with a rubber firm to set up the Nokia Corporation. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Introduction to the Nokia Mobile Phone" essay for you Create order This was the beginning of the move to electronics production by the company. The mobile phone era for Nokia began in 1981 when the first ever international mobile phone network was built called the Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT). Organizational Structure at Nokia As of October 1, 2009 the organizational structure at Nokia was extremely mobile and flexible. Nokias organizational structure is horizontal and it allows for greater flexibility and speedy communication channels between different departments. The devices unit looks after the development and management of mobile devices portfolio which is targeted at all major consumer segments. The solutions department ensures that it continuously develops solutions whereby ensuring that a particular mobile device has integrated contents and personalized services and the output of these three components results into a leading mobile phone for the end user. The solutions unit works with other departments in close proximity to provide such solutions. The services department creates and designs internet services that enhance the consumer experience when Nokia phone users interact with the web. The main areas where this unit focuses on include messaging, maps, music, and Ovi developer tools. This department also ensures that there is a consistent increase in different services as the market evolves. The other significant department is Markets which acts like a supply chain department for Nokia. The unit is also responsible for sales channels, branding and marketing activities for various products and services. The corporate development department looks for future growth opportunities and it also plans for future strategic actions that will give the company a competitive advantage against competitors. This department also provides operational supports to other core departments such as Devices, Services, Solutions and markets. Nokia Siemens Networks is a joint venture with Siemens and it provides network infrastructure which is both fixed and wireless. This division also provides communications and networks service platforms. Finally, the last major division is NAVTEQ; this unit is a provider of detailed navigational maps and digital map data automobile navigation systems, navigation systems for mobile devices, internet mapping applications and mapping solutions to government and other businesses. NAVTEQ is an important part of Nokias operations since it provides downloadable maps and other content that will enhance the experience of consumers who use Nokias smart phones. Corporate Governance The way authority and responsibility is organized at Nokia it shows that the company is exemplary in its approach towards corporate governance. The companys strategic and significant natured decisions are made by the board. These matters might include strategic guidelines, approval of periodic plans and decisions on major divestments or investments. The company charter, article of association and Finnish Companies Act determine the roles and responsibilities of all directors and executive members. According to the auditors and company information strict guidelines are followed in terms of code of conduct and ethical behavior of each employee. Similarly the company complies with all stock market requirements of the Helsinki stock market, New York and Frankfurt stock exchanges. The company provides all necessary data to authorities at NYSE because the under the rules any firm that complies with its national laws must file any differences that exist between its national laws and the laws to be followed under NYSE. Competitors of Nokia Corporation Nokias direct and major competitors include Motorola Inc, Cisco Systems Inc, Research in Motion, LM Ericsson Telephone Co., and QUALCOMM Inc. The company faces stiff competition in the business oriented mobile phone market from RIMs Blackberry series. Nokias E-series phones are geared to compete with the Blackberry series. Similarly the company faces challenges from Samsung and Motorola in the touch screen phone markets and the latest Android based phones that offer efficient and extremely user friendly interface to consumers. In the navigations and maps market Nokia, like the traditional manufacturers such as Garmin, TomTom, faces tough competition from the Google and Apple partnership that will make the iPhone the ultimate navigation and smart device for this generation. The difference between this navigation process that iPhone will offer is that consumers wouldnt need to download maps for a price or they would not need automotive navigations systems rather they would use their smart phones as navigation devices at very low rates. For the year 2009, Nokias market share remained flat at around 38% in the global handset market after consumers continue to encourage Apples iPhone in favor of the N series that Nokia is offering. Nokia also faces competition from Ericsson mobile phones in the music phones; Sony Ericssons superior voice quality and speaker quality give its phones an edge over Nokias Express music series. Industry Outlook for 2010 The expectations of the company for 2010 are considerably flat in terms of the performance of its various divisions. Overall the mobile device industry is expected to increase by about 10% in 2010 in terms of volume compared to 2009. For the year 2010 Nokia expects its mobile device market share to be flat compared to 2009, a similar sort of expectation also exists for Nokia and Nokia Siemens Networks as the venture sees a minimal increase in euro terms for the mobile and the fixed infrastructure services market. Importance of International Markets to Nokia Corporation In 2009, out of the total sales from the company Europe accounted for 36%, Chinas share was 16%, Middle East Africa 14%, North America 5%, Asia-Pacific 22% and Latin America 7%. As we can see from these numbers that about 59% of sales are coming from the developing world; for a company that began operations from Finland that is an important statistics since most of its revenues are coming from international markets especially from developing countries. The 10 markets from which Nokia generated the highest amounts of sales revenues are listed below in decreasing order; with the highest written first and lowest stated last: China, India, the UK, Germany, the United States, Russia, Indonesia, Spain, Brazil and Italy; when combined these markets provided 52% of the total sales in 2009. It is important to note here that China and India; the fastest growing economies in Asia are leaders for Nokia sales; secondly the list also contains growing markets such as Brazil and Russia. It is important to note here that because Nokias main sales driver is the mobile device market hence there are higher sales potential for Nokia in developing countries. This is because countries such as India and China are experiencing large demand for mobile phones due to the rapid growth and development of infrastructure especially network infrastructure. The rising levels of GDP per capita and income levels of people in the developing world are increasing their ability to purchase mobile phones therefore we could see that in the near future major growth would come from developing economies. Foreign Exchange exposures Faced by Nokia Nokia has businesses all over the world; this global presence means that assets and sales, liabilities and loans taken or completed in different parts of the world may be higher or lower in value when translated into the Euro or any home base currency. Because Nokia owns substantial assets in foreign markets therefore the company has to hedge and protect itself against the potential of currency adjustments in the negative direction. Nokias foreign exchange policy is developed by the treasury department of the company which looks after the interests of the company such that foreign exchange exposure is minimized and shareholder value is maximized. Under the policy; transactions which are considered of material value are hedged against foreign exchange exposures as long as the hedging tool is not uneconomical i.e. the hedging cost is lower or market liquidity is favorable. The company uses derivative financial instruments such as foreign exchange options and forward foreign exchange contracts to manage hedging and reduce the exposure. The group has a policy of not hedging 2-year or beyond forecasted foreign currency cash flows. New Product and Market development Nokia operates in a highly drastic and technologically changing industry; on the consumer side the company also sees the acceptance and increasing demand for more sophisticated products therefore the company has to remain on its toes and come up with new products and services. The recent financial crisis which was coupled with economic downturn as well saw most industries and companies experiencing reduced profits or even losses. If we look at the table above we see that for the period 2004-08 the average RD expenditure as a percentage of sales was around 11%. This explains how important the development of new products and markets are to companies like Nokia. RD expenditure dipped slightly during 2009 by about 1% compared with 2008 figures because of the decline in sales. The reduction in total revenues during the year 2009 was because the brunt of the crisis or the lowest point of the crisis was considered to be the third and fourth quarters of 2009. The major problem faced by Nokia mobile devices sales was the fact that as macroeconomic aggregates plummeted world wide; people were laid off, disposal incomes squeezed and purchasing power declined in some regions because of currency depreciation, all these factors led to the decrease in demand for Nokia phones. Despite these tough circumstances Nokia continued to expand product development and introduced new products in the mobile device markets, new systems and networks from Nokia Siemens Partnership and navigation phones under the NAVTEQ division. Capital Structure and Liabilities Management at Nokia The average basic number of shares during 2009 was 3.705 billion, 2008 was 3.743 billion and 2007 was 3.885 billion. The difference between diluted and basic average number of shares was negligible during all the three years stated above. About 1% of the shares were owned by Nokia Corporation during 2009. There was not much change in the capital structure during the three years apart from a buy-back and cancellation of shares that were owned by the company during 2008 and 2009 respectively. If we closely analyze the net debt to equity ratio for the 5 year period we see that initially in the years 04, 05 06 and even 07 the company had surplus assets over total debt. Though this situation drastically declined during 2008 as the credit crunch forced Nokia to borrow money and bridge the gap between its working capital. This factor eroded the asset base advantage the company was holding for the previous 4 years before 2008. Another important factor was that short-term borrowings rose substantially during 2008. Short-term borrowings increased from 714 million Euros in 2007 to 3,578 million Euros in 2008. The equity ratio represents the amount of assets represented or funded by the equity holders. From the table above we can see that the assets funded through equity has been on a declining run throughout the five year period. This also explains that as years have passed by liabilities have been increasing used as a way of financing assets. Many analysts believe that borrowing is a lesser expensive way of raising funds compared to equity as interest paid reduces effective tax rate; secondly creditors do not have a say in the way management runs the business; thirdly no dividends need to be paid out. On the other hand equity has its own advantages such as no finance costs; in case of bankruptcy the claim of common shareholders is last only after other creditors have been paid out. Overall companies are suggested to find an optimum equity and liability combination by working out the WACC at different levels. 2007 was considered one of the best years in Nokias history not only did the stock do well but the companys other major indicators were in green as well. For instance the return on equity was around 53% during 2007; that is a phenomenal return for shareholders from a company that competes in such a tough competitive environment. The return on equity declined significantly during 2008. As we see from the table that the value declined to 27.5% from 53.9% in 2007. This again explains the difficulty the company faced during 2008 in terms of low sales volumes, depressed prices and difficult financial conditions. Nokia Corporations shares are listed on the following stock markets: NASDAQ OMX, (Helsinki), Frankfurter, and New York Stock Exchange. The company delisted its Swedish Depository Receipts (SDRs) from the Stockholm Stock Exchange. The last day of trading of these SDRs was June 1, 2007. Raising capital and loans from foreign capital markets has a number of benefits and a few disadvantages as well. In terms of the benefits; firstly by listing stocks in a market such as NYSE a company like Nokia gave itself exposure to one of the most valuable and important stock markets in the world. New York is the financial capital of the worlds largest economy and having the ability to raise funds in such a market builds great reputation for a company apart from substantial capital. Similarly the SDR move into the Swedish Stock Market was a strong move as that would have strengthened the capital structure before the delisting. SDRs provide a substantial capital inflow in lieu of a stable and known cost of capital that gives the firms financial cost structure sustainability and consistency. In terms of the disadvantages economic activities in a foreign country might impact the shareholder value of the whole group. Though this cost is offset by the point that todays financial markets are so dependent on each other that market risks are almost similar in virtually all countries and their stock markets. The important thing here is that companies like Nokia must be aware of the trade cycles and the economic cycles of the world and individual markets and there relationship between each other because that will determine the impact of raising capital in foreign markets. Impact on Market Value as a Result of Strategies in Foreign Exchange Risk, Raising Capital and Moving into New Markets Technological firms generally have higher risk attached to their stock prices and market values therefore we expect them to do extremely well when the economy is booming and the company is able to come up with consistent and high quality products. The case of Nokia is no different the company has successfully established itself as one of the most reliable and advanced manufacturer of mobile devices. Steadily over the years Nokia has moved into new markets which have diversified the portfolio of the company hence spreading the risk over different but related markets. Nokias move to enter new markets has been a good way of diversifying business interests in the sense that the company has not only developed new products but it has also moved into new physical markets. Developing new products has its own advantages but moving into new geographical markets can benefit companies from the all important concept of economies of new scale. Going into new markets exposes the company to absolutely new customers hence increasing the total potential customer base of the company. Raising capital in foreign markets also impacts the market value of the company in a positive way. The company, by raising additional capital in new markets, not only increases its ability to spend money on acquisitions, development, and supply-chain but also gives credibility and higher standing to the companys share in the capital markets and makes the company a strong candidate for a better rating from agencies. The above graph is the stock price movement of Nokia stock, listed on NYSE, versus the SP 500 over a five year period. What is evident here is that consistently the Nokia stock has out performed the SP 500 for most of the time period under discussion. In percentage terms the stock has performed extremely well during the later half of 2007 up to mid 2008; even during the tough times of the late 2009 the stock did better than the overall SP index. The above graph is again representative of the fact that the companys stock performed better than most top company stocks during the boom period of 2007. Credit has to be given to the financial managers of the company since there prudent steps ensured a better than average EPS for the company and subsequently even better share price performance. Evaluation of the Firms Finance Managers In terms of hedging and controlling the foreign exchange risk I think the financial managers did a good job by employing a prudent policy of hedging all those cash inflows and outflows which were due within 2 years period. This is a prudent approach; secondly if we look at the table below we see that the company has remained profitable despite the financial and economic crisis that plagued the global markets for the past 2 and a half years. We also see that the company gave dividends in all the last six years under discussion; this also shows consistency and the right mindset of financial managers who rightly understand the need to rollout dividends in order to ensure continuous investments from investors in the near future. The above graph shows that profitability peaked during the 2007 period and steadily declined thereafter this also shows the difficult financial and economic environment that was weathered by the corporate sectors of different economies. The impact of the crises were so great that profits before taxes almost decreased by 50% in 2008 from 2007 profits before taxes.

Saturday, May 9, 2020

I Chose For Fight For My Dream - 766 Words

Sometimes our conditions in life might not be like what we had thought they will be and that is a time when we face a big decision in life to either cope up with the new condition and fight to fulfill our dreams or to just quit and maybe change our dreams instead of our conditions .As for me, I chose to fight for my dream. One of the best accomplishments of my life was earning my bachelor degree, despite the fact that I was living in Syria where war, bombs, and shells are a normal routine. Since I was a kid I was interested in Literature and being accepted in the English Language and Literature department at Damascus University was like a dream come true. Unfortunately, I had not expected that I was going to spend these 4 years in so much danger and face many challenges. It did not take but a year’s time in my studies to start realizing that studying with on and off electricity, postponing the exams because of the shells ,and not being many times able to just go out to univers ity or work was going to make completing those four years really hard. Although of my fear, I was determined to finish my bachelor and get the degree while at the same time I was also working as an executive secretary for a medical equipment company. Eventually with a lot of dedication and hard work I passed all of my courses in just 4 years (as I was supposed to) and earned the grade of Very Good. Now when I look back, I believe that this experience has made me a stronger person and it definitelyShow MoreRelatedThe Career I Chose to Be My Life776 Words   |  4 PagesThe Career I chose to be my Life Alejandro Fleitas Rivera ITT Technical Institute I am pursuing a career the Network System Administration field. I believe my life somehow guided me to this career because I always had a winning hand when it came to computers, I never attended a school to pursue my dream of being a computer technician while in Cuba because it takes a lot of money just to study the career is not guaranteed that upon graduation you u will find a decent job doing what you studiedRead MoreCinderella Man American Dream1175 Words   |  5 Pagesand believe the one reason that it will.† Unknown. This quote from an unknown author perfectly addresses what I believe a critical step for attaining the American Dream is. To focus on the reasons someone cannot achieve something will only lead to disaster, but when someone takes the one reason why they can succeed, they do. There is no better representation of this and the American Dream than the movie Cinderella Man. 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I could tell you that I am a current sophomore at Georgia Southern University with a 3.98 GPA who is currently involved in The 100 Collegiate Women of America and Phi Eta Sigma Honor Society. These things however do not set me apart from other applicants, but there are two things that do: my life experiences and my motivation. My life experiences are not as extravagant as going on a jungle safari or studyingRead MoreThe Concept Of Intersectionality, What Can You Share About Their Identity?1281 Words   |  6 PagesDescribe the person; based on the concept of intersectionality, what can you share about their identity? For my ethnography paper I interviewed a 30 year old female who emigrated from Mexico to escape the violence of her father. She was born in a rural area of Sinaloa secluded in the mountains where you see cartels go to war just stepping out of your door could get you killed. 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Having a white American mother and black Kenyan father, he has a different experience than the majority of people in society when it comes to race and identity, however still it seems similar to the experience of many blacks as described in William E. Cross’s Black Psychological

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Antisocial Personality Disorder Free Essays

Antisocial Personality Disorder Guadalupe Guizar Reyes HACC South West February 1, 2012 Antisocial Personality Disorder Often most people don’t understand the real issue behind Antisocial Personality Disorder and has been made clear that previous studies show that most personality disorders if not all begin by displaying symptoms during early childhood. Although very little is done about ASPD, whether it being due to lack of knowledge or not wanting to admit failure of flaw in your family, this article while far from perfect does a well job in declaring all the important aspects in the disorder. The website itself is very organized and highly informative, presenting most frequently asked questions and answering them in terms that any person with any type of educated level can comprehend. We will write a custom essay sample on Antisocial Personality Disorder or any similar topic only for you Order Now What causes antisocial personality disorder? How is it treated? What happens if it gets untreated? Questions that any person who is looking into this particular disorder whether it be for research of relevant to you or someone you know in which you want to seek help for will find most constructive. The website is not only informative but also beneficial to someone who is looking for treatment, possessing a section in which you can seek for help near you. It contains many tools that are easily accessible, useful to those in search for a specific disorder. They include a section called â€Å"Patient Discussions† where previous patients may comment on a question for instants, what treatment has been effective for your antisocial personality disorder? While not a personal question it can be quite discouraging for those who have yet to find an effective way to deal or cope with their disorder may lose interest or hope in receiving treatment. To date†¦ nothing has even remotely changed about my antisocial personality disorder and have been in and out of mental institutions most of my life. † (author last name, date, page number) The content on the page is easy on the eyes, black text on a black background, making it readable to keep visitors from leaving the site wh ile making the website look polished and professional. The negative input to the content is that although readable, every section is in the same style format, color making it difficult to istinguish one section from another. The website contains many links to other information on different types of disorders containing their symptoms, treatment, causes and other informative data all at the reach of one website making it counterproductive. The website contains features on how to distinguish one disorder from another and how from afar you can characterize the disorder, which is quite useful to those who may think a loved one maybe in need of treatment but are unsure of how to go about it. Despite the lack of space on the website it makes up with different alternatives on how the disorder can be treated, therapy for instants â€Å"For example, teenagers who receive therapy, helps them change the thinking that leads to their maladaptive behavior (cognitive behavioral therapy) has been found to significantly decrease the incidence of repeat antisocial behaviors. † The website contains good factors, it’s easy to navigate and locate particular sections you’re most interested in and everything located under one website. If by chance that there is something distinct you are searching for and cant seem to find located at the top left hand corner is a search section where it’ll lead you different website with similar traits. The website is good for all who are interested in ASPD or any specific medical condition whether it is for personal knowledge or seeking guidance and help. It will give you a clear understanding of these medical conditions and awareness. http://www. medicinenet. com/antisocial_personality_disorder/article. htm How to cite Antisocial Personality Disorder, Essay examples

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

The Immediate Effects of the French and Indian War Essay Example

The Immediate Effects of the French and Indian War Paper Sunday, October 06, 2013 THE IMMEDIATE EFFECTS OF THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR The French and Indian War began when Virginian Settlers went to claim land by the Ohio River that was given to them by the king in 1754. When they arrived, the French would not let them have the land, and kicked them out. A group of Virginians led by Major George Washington went to where the French had taken their claim. They were sent away civilly, but also strictly. Major Washington and the Virginian troops decided they would camp out while reinforcements arrived. Washington and his men ttacked the fort after they had armed both themselves and the reinforcements. We will write a custom essay sample on The Immediate Effects of the French and Indian War specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Immediate Effects of the French and Indian War specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Immediate Effects of the French and Indian War specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The first battle of the French-Indian War ended with a result of ten deaths, twenty one captures and one escape. War burst forth between Great Britain and France in both the new world and also in England. The war changed ownership of certain new world colonies, in order to pay off war debt, certain acts were put into effect, and famous people from the Revolutionary war got their governmental reputation from the French and Indian War. One important immediate effect of the French-Indian War as that some new world colonies changed in ownership. Some French colonies located in modern-day Canada were owned by Great Britain during the War. After the Spanish failed to ruin the English, Florida was signed away as well. The French were in control of Louisiana, Acadia and Northeastern Canada, home to many Indian tribes such as the Choctaw, Chickasaw, Catawba, Creek and Cherokee. The eastern seaboard in Georgia and the Carolinas was where the English chose to settle. The region between the English and French settlements tried to preserve their self- overnment through trading with both France and Great Britain. The relationship among the colonies was also changed by the switch in ownership. Another major effect of the war was that certain acts were put into effect in order to pay off war debt. The Tea Act, The Sugar Act, The Townshend Act, The Quartering Act, and The Stamp Act were passed as a result of the French and Indian War. The Tea Act was established to remove tax dues on imported tea. The act enabled the East Indian Tea Company to recover from the losses it had experienced because of the colonies ailure to buy the tea. There was also a component of trying to control smuggling because anti British protests were being funded using the money made from smuggled tea. The Sugar Act was put into effect in order to pay off the debt caused by the French and Indian War. The British placed taxes on sugar, coffee, wine and many other goods imported in large amounts from Britain, and many colonists boycotted the products despite the governments attempt to pay off the countrys debt. Similar to the Sugar Act, The Townshend Acts main purpose was to raise money to pay off the debt. Taxes were placed on paint, paper, lead, glass and also tea. Colonists boycotted many of these items as well. The purpose of the Quartering Act made to house and quarter British soldiers in this act. The Stamp Act was created because Britain needed the colonists money so they could fght in their own war. Also, the act was made because the colonists needed to pay Britain back. The French and Indian War also gave famous people from the Revolutionary War a chance to get their governmental and military experience and reputation. One of those iconic people was George Washington, Americas first president.

Friday, March 20, 2020

Abiotic and Biotic Stresses

Abiotic and Biotic Stresses What causes a plant to be stressed? As with humans, stresses can originate from the surrounding environment or, they can come from living organisms that can cause disease or damage. Water Stress One of the most important abiotic stresses affecting plants is water stress. A plant requires a certain amount of water for its optimal survival; too much water (flooding stress) can cause plant cells to swell and burst; whereas drought stress (too little water) can cause the plant to dry up, a condition called desiccation. Either condition can be deadly to the plant. Temperature Stress Temperature stresses can also wreak havoc on a plant. As with any living organism, a plant has an optimal temperature range at which it grows and performs best. If the temperature is too cold for the plant, it can lead to cold stress, also called chilling stress. Extreme forms of cold stress can lead to freezing stress. Cold temperatures can affect the amount and rate of uptake of water and nutrients, leading to cell desiccation and starvation. Under extremely cold conditions, the cell liquids can freeze outright, causing plant death. Hot weather can affect plants adversely, too. Intense heat can cause plant cell proteins to break down, a process called denaturation. Cell walls and membranes can also melt under extremely high temperatures, and the permeability of the membranes is affected. Other Abiotic Stresses Other abiotic stresses are less obvious but can be equally as lethal. In the end, most abiotic stresses affect the plant cells in the same manner as do water stress and temperature stress. Wind stress can either directly damage the plant through sheer force; or, the wind can affect the transpiration of water through the leaf stomata and cause desiccation. Direct burning of plants through wildfires will cause the cell structure to break down through melting or denaturation. In farming systems, the addition of agrochemicals such as fertilizers and pesticides, either in excess or in deficit, can also cause abiotic stress to the plant. The plant is affected by an imbalance of nutrition or via toxicity. High amounts of salt taken up by a plant can lead to cell desiccation, as elevated levels of salt outside a plant cell will cause water to leave the cell, a process called osmosis. Plant uptake of heavy metals can occur when plants grow in soils fertilized with improperly composted sewage sludge. High heavy metal content in plants can lead to complications with basic physiological and biochemical activities such as photosynthesis. Biotic Stresses Biotic stresses cause damage to plants via living organisms, including fungi, bacteria, insects, and weeds. Viruses, although they are not considered to be living organisms, also cause biotic stress to plants. Fungi cause more diseases in plants than any other biotic stress factor. Over 8,000 fungal species are known to cause plant disease. On the other hand, only about 14 bacterial genera cause economically important diseases in plants, according to an Ohio State University Extension publication. Not many plant pathogenic viruses exist, but they are serious enough to cause nearly as much crop damage worldwide as fungi, according to published estimates. Microorganisms can cause plant wilt, leaf spots, root rot, or seed damage. Insects can cause severe physical damage to plants, including the leaves, stem, bark, and flowers. Insects can also act as a vector of viruses and bacteria from infected plants to healthy plants. The method by which weeds, considered as unwanted and unprofitable plants, inhibit the growth of desirable plants such as crops or flowers is not by direct damage, but by competing with the desirable plants for space and nutrients. Because weeds grow quickly and produce an abundance of viable seed, they are often able to dominate environments more quickly than some desirable plants.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Firewood Species Burning Properties and Comparisons

Firewood Species Burning Properties and Comparisons Get Best Results by Seasoning Dense Wood Species You will get the best results and more heat per wood volume when burning the highest density (heaviest) wood you can find. Dense firewood will produce the highest recoverable BTUs, but all wood must be seasoned for best results. Seasoning lowers the moisture content so less energy is used to drive off water (which limits heat efficiency). Many of these heavy woods have excellent burning properties during the three stages wood goes through when burned. The final coaling stage is very important for sustaining heat over time. All of the best, and usually hardest and heaviest, wood species have excellent coaling properties as they continue burning after the initial moisture and all gasses are driven off. Use Denser Wood to Increase Heat Production Trees considered to be deciduous (lose their leaves in winter) and, more specifically, hardwoods tend to be a more dense wood and will burn hotter and longer than trees considered to be evergreen or softwood (there are some exceptions). Firewood will also burn hotter if seasoned under a shelter to reduce the moisture that drives off heating as wood burns. Wood heat value is measured in BTUs or British Thermal Units. The higher the BTU value, the more heat you get per unit of wood. Heating value is based on density, weight, BTUs, and coaling  ability. Next, well discuss the best and worst tree species to use for firewood ranked by their total ability to establish and retain heat: Five Best Firewood Tree Species Hickory: 25 to 28 million BTUs/cord - density 37 to 58 lbs./cu.ft.Oak: 24 to 28 million BTUs/cord - density 37 to 58 lbs./cu.ft.Black Locust: 27 million BTUs/cord - density 43 lbs./cu.ft.Beech: 24 to 27 million BTUs/cord - density 32 to 56 lbs./cu.ft.White Ash: 24 million BTUs/cord - density 43 lbs./cu.ft. Five Worst Firewood Tree Species White Pine: 15 million BTUs/cord - density 22 to 31 lbs./cu.ft.Cottonwood/Willow: 16 million BTUs/cord - density 24 to 37 lbs./cu.ft.Basswood: 14 million BTUs/cord - density 20 to 37 lbs./cu.ft.Aspen: 15 million BTUs/cord - density 26 lbs./cu.ft.Yellow Poplar: 18 mm million BTUs/cord - density 22 to 31 lbs./cu.ft.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

3 works of art Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

3 works of art - Essay Example d people are casually having conversations with each other while partying though in a moderate manner not as most young people’s style of current clubbing. The artist to bring out then impressionistic taste, he utilized intensively harmony and balance aspects coupled with rich colors in defining the exact appearance of the entire landscape’s components. This is evident in the way he manages to give clear and well-defined images like people’s skin color, their clothes and varied delicacies including wine on the table. The location depicted in this picture is along Seine River where the impressionist together with his wife and fellow colleague Gustave Caillebotte held a party for their friends. The most striking aspect in this encompasses the setting of the entire party and varied delicacies found on the table besides people’s clothing having a taste of French. Hence, this signifies the changing of French social interaction during late 19Th period due to inf luence from the then Industrial Revolution. Through this artwork, the viewer is capable seeing a barmaid standing behind a serving table and other reflected images of quests in a partying joint seated. This artwork depicts the then French social class especially in partying joints including bars where after liberation of the female gender one was capable of partying freely and without any intimidation with men. However, based on Manet’s mode of painting, besides the woman in this image selling varied types of wines and fruits, she is also selling herself as a prostitute. The depiction of this notion is by the presence of oranges, which Manet through his works associated with prostitution. This particular Manet’s image whose location is a bar, since its painting and introduction to the public for scrutiny has attracted numerous criticisms by scholars. The most intriguing aspect that catches the eye of the viewer encompasses the two images of a man and woman whereby the latter stares in front of her